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5 Stages of Compassion Fatigue

5 Stages of Compassion Fatigue

In this post, you’ll learn about the 5 stages of compassion fatigue as well as helpful ways to recover from compassion fatigue.

What Is Compassion Fatigue?

Compassion fatigue refers to the emotional, physical, and psychological exhaustion that can occur when individuals repeatedly engage in caregiving or helping professions, where they are exposed to the suffering and trauma of others.

It is often seen in healthcare professionals, therapists, social workers, and other helping professionals.

The term “compassion fatigue” recognizes the toll that constant exposure to others’ pain and suffering can have on caregivers and professionals who work in emotionally demanding roles.

It is different from burnout, although they share some similarities.

Compassion fatigue specifically relates to the empathic response and the strain that comes from consistently holding space for others’ pain.

It’s important to note that while compassion fatigue is a recognized phenomenon, it is not considered a mental health disorder in itself.

However, if left unaddressed, it can have a significant impact on one’s well-being, job performance, and overall quality of life.

Related: Compassion Fatigue Self Test

Symptoms of Compassion Fatigue

Compassion fatigue is characterized by a range of emotional, physical, and psychological symptoms that can significantly impact an individual’s well-being.

It occurs as a result of prolonged exposure to the suffering and trauma of others, especially in caregiving or helping professions.

Emotional symptoms

1. Decreased empathy and compassion: One of the hallmark signs of compassion fatigue is a noticeable decline in one’s ability to feel empathy and compassion towards others. This emotional distancing may stem from repeatedly witnessing and absorbing the pain and trauma of those being helped.

2. Feelings of helplessness: Individuals experiencing compassion fatigue may begin to feel overwhelmed by the suffering they encounter. They may develop a sense of powerlessness, unable to make a significant difference or alleviate the pain they witness.

3. Emotional exhaustion: The constant exposure to others’ distress can lead to emotional exhaustion. This can manifest as feelings of being emotionally drained, depleted, and lacking energy or enthusiasm in various aspects of life.

4. Increased irritability and moodiness: Compassion fatigue can result in increased irritability, short temper, and moodiness. Individuals might find themselves becoming easily frustrated or agitated, even over minor issues, due to the emotional strain they are under.

5. Emotional numbness: Over time, individuals may experience a sense of emotional numbing. This is a self-protective mechanism that allows them to cope with the emotional intensity of their work. However, it can also lead to a diminished capacity to experience positive emotions or form deep connections with others.

Physical symptoms

1. Fatigue and sleep disturbances: The chronic stress and emotional labor associated with compassion fatigue can lead to increased fatigue and difficulty sleeping. Individuals may struggle with falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up feeling unrefreshed.

2. Physical ailments: Unresolved compassion fatigue can contribute to a variety of physical symptoms, such as headaches, migraines, muscle tension, gastrointestinal issues (e.g., stomachaches, digestive problems), and compromised immune system functioning.

3. Changes in appetite and weight: Some individuals experiencing compassion fatigue may notice changes in appetite, leading to either increased or decreased food intake. Consequently, weight fluctuations may occur.

Psychological symptoms

1. Intrusive thoughts or flashbacks: Witnessing trauma and distress for extended periods can trigger intrusive thoughts or flashbacks, where individuals involuntarily re-experience the traumatic events they have witnessed. These symptoms overlap with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

2. Difficulty concentrating and making decisions: Compassion fatigue can impair cognitive functioning, making it challenging to concentrate, focus, and make decisions. Individuals may experience scattered thoughts and reduced productivity.

3. Decreased job satisfaction and professional detachment: Compassion fatigue can have a significant impact on job satisfaction and professional engagement. Individuals may become disillusioned with their work, feeling detached and disconnected from their role or the people they serve.

4. Social withdrawal and isolation: Due to emotional exhaustion and other symptoms, individuals may withdraw socially and isolate themselves from friends, family, and colleagues. They may prioritize spending time alone to recover from the demands of their work, leading to a sense of loneliness.

It is important to note that compassion fatigue exists on a spectrum, and individuals may experience varying degrees of these symptoms.

Related: Best 10 Compassion Fatigue Books

5 Stages of Compassion Fatigue

Baranowsky and Gentry created a 5-stage model to describe the trajectory of compassion fatigue.

Stage 1. Zealot Phase

In this stage, individuals may demonstrate excessive enthusiasm and passion for their work.

They may have a strong desire to help others, but this heightened level of dedication can lead to neglecting self-care and personal boundaries.

Over time, this excessive zeal can contribute to emotional exhaustion and burnout.

Stage 2. Irritability Phase

As individuals continue to provide care and support, they may start experiencing increased irritability and frustration.

This stage is characterized by heightened emotional sensitivity and impatience.

Professionals may find it challenging to manage their own emotions, which can negatively impact their interactions with clients or patients.

Related: How Resilience Works? Top 10 Powerful Ways to Stay Healthy and Happy During Tough Times

Stage 3. Withdrawal Phase

During this stage, individuals may begin to emotionally detach from their clients or patients.

They may experience a decreased ability to empathize and connect, as a means of self-protection.

This withdrawal can lead to feelings of isolation, cynicism, and a reduced sense of purpose in their work.

Stage 4. Zombie Phase

This stage is characterized by emotional and physical exhaustion.

Professionals may feel drained, numb, or detached from their work and the people they care for.

They may go through the motions without being fully present or engaged.

This phase can also involve a sense of disconnection from one’s own emotions and needs.

Related: Best 15 Stress Relief Toys For Your Wellbeing

Stage 5. Pathology

The final stage suggests a more severe form of compassion fatigue, where individuals may experience significant impairment in their overall functioning and well-being.

This might manifest as symptoms related to depression, anxiety disorders, or even substance abuse.

Professionals in this stage may feel overwhelmed, hopeless, and question their ability to continue in the caregiving profession.

It’s important to remember that the stages of compassion fatigue are not always linear, and individuals may experience them differently.

Compassion Fatigue Worksheets

How to Overcome Compassion Fatigue?

To address and prevent compassion fatigue, it is crucial for professionals to take proactive steps to care for themselves.

Here are some evidence-based strategies that can help:

1. Self-care

Engage in activities that promote your physical, emotional, and mental well-being.

Prioritize regular exercise, healthy eating, sufficient sleep, and relaxation techniques like mindfulness or deep breathing exercises.

2. Boundaries

Set clear boundaries between your personal and professional life.

Learn to say no when necessary and avoid taking on excessive workloads.

Establishing healthy boundaries allows you to preserve energy and prevent burnout.

Related: Best 10 Resilience Books

3. Social Support

Seek support from peers, mentors, or support groups who understand the unique challenges you face.

Sharing experiences, concerns, and emotions with others who can empathize can be incredibly helpful in reducing feelings of isolation.

4. Reflective practice

Engage in self-reflection and journaling to gain insights into your thoughts, feelings, and reactions.

Regularly reviewing your experiences can help identify warning signs of compassion fatigue and allow for adjustments in self-care strategies.

5. Exercise emotional regulation

Develop healthy coping mechanisms to manage overwhelming emotions.

Practice techniques such as deep breathing, journaling, or talking to a trusted confidant.

These strategies can help regulate intense emotions and prevent them from building up over time.

Related: How To Feel Your Feelings? Top 9 Difficult Emotions To Cope With In Healthy Ways

6. Create work-life balance

Strive for a healthy balance between your professional and personal life.

Create boundaries around work-related activities, such as checking emails or taking work-related calls outside of work hours.

Prioritize activities outside of work that bring you fulfillment and personal enjoyment.

7. Practice self-compassion

Cultivate self-compassion by treating yourself with kindness and understanding.

Acknowledge that compassion fatigue is a natural response to ongoing exposure to trauma and suffering.

Learn to accept your limitations and forgive yourself for any perceived shortcomings.

8. Take breaks and vacations

Allow yourself regular breaks or vacations to disconnect from work and restore your energy.

Engaging in activities unrelated to work promotes stress reduction and rejuvenation, ultimately preventing and alleviating compassion fatigue.

Related: Dysregulated Nervous System: Top 9 Signs & How to Heal

9. Professional development

Stay updated on best practices in your field and engage in ongoing learning opportunities.

Expanding your knowledge and skills can enhance your confidence and effectiveness as a caregiver.


Compassion fatigue is not a personal failing but a natural response to exposure to traumatic or distressing situations.

By prioritizing self-care and seeking support, you can better manage and prevent the negative impact of compassion fatigue, allowing you to continue providing care with empathy and compassion.


What causes compassion fatigue?

Compassion fatigue is caused by chronic exposure to others’ suffering, which can overwhelm an individual’s capacity to cope effectively.

Continuous exposure to trauma, long working hours, high workload, lack of support, personal history of trauma, and certain personality traits, such as high empathy or perfectionism, can increase the risk of developing compassion fatigue.

How does compassion fatigue differ from burnout?

While compassion fatigue and burnout share similarities, they are distinct concepts.

Compassion fatigue specifically results from empathizing with the suffering of others, whereas burnout is a more general state of physical and emotional exhaustion caused by chronic work-related stress.

Burnout can occur in any profession, while compassion fatigue is often associated with caregiving roles.

Related: Best 99 Coping Skills (+FREE Coping Worksheets)

Is it necessary to seek professional help for compassion fatigue?

Seeking professional help is not always necessary, but it can be beneficial if self-care strategies alone are insufficient.

A mental health professional can provide guidance, support, and evidence-based interventions tailored to your specific needs.

They can help you develop personalized coping mechanisms and address any underlying issues contributing to compassion fatigue.

Can compassion fatigue be prevented?

While it may not be entirely preventable, there are steps individuals can take to reduce the risk of developing compassion fatigue.

This includes practicing self-care, setting boundaries, seeking support, and engaging in reflection and self-awareness exercises.

Organizations can also implement preventive measures, such as regular team debriefings, education on compassion fatigue, and opportunities for staff to take breaks and recuperate.

By Hadiah

Hadiah is a counselor who is passionate about supporting individuals on their journey towards mental well-being. Hadiah not only writes insightful articles on various mental health topics but also creates engaging and practical mental health worksheets.

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